Recent progress in electrochemical sensors and assays for DNA damage and repair
DNA in cells is permanently exposed to endogenous or exogenous chemical or physical agents which may cause chemical changes in the DNA structure collectively called "DNA damage", which may have severe impacts on human health. Therefore, efficient techniques to detect DNA damage are sought, among which electroanalytical methods hold an important position. This review is focused on recent progress in the field of electrochemical sensors and assays for DNA damage, particularly on typical applications of advanced electrochemical techniques in detecting oxidative DNA damage, abasic lesions, base mismatches, non-covalent interactions with drugs and other substances. Special attention is paid to combinations of electrochemical detection with biochemical tools such as enzymatic systems mimicking metabolic activation of xenobiotics, or DNA repair enzymes converting specific nucleobase lesions to species offering more facile electrochemical detection. These applications create conditions for application of electroanalytical approaches in biological research, including studies of DNA repair processes. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.