DNA binding by antitumor trans[PtCl2(NH3)(thiazole)]. Protein recognition and nucleotide excision repair of monofunctional adductst
Antitumor effects of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) and the clinical inactivity of its trans isomer (transplatin) have been considered a paradigm for the classical structure-activity relationships of platinum drugs. However, several new analogues of transplatin which exhibit a different spectrum of cytostatic activity including activity in tumor cells resistant to cisplatin have been recently identified. Analogues containing the planar amine ligand of the general structure trans- [PtCl2(NH3)(L)], where L = planar amine, represent an example of such compounds. DNA is believed to be the major pharmacological target of platinum compounds. To contribute to the understanding of mechanisms underlying the activation of trans geometry in transplatin analogues containing planar amine ligands, various biochemical and biophysical methods were employed in previous studies to analyze the global modifications of natural DNA by trans- [PtCl2(NH3)(L)]. These initial studies have revealed some unique features of the DNA binding mode of this class of platinum drugs. As the monofunctional lesions represent a significant fraction of stable adducts formed in DNA by bifunctional antitumor traps-platinum compounds with planar ligands, we analyzed in the present work short DNA duplexes containing the single, site-specific monofunctional adduct of a representative of this class of platinum drugs, antitumor trans-[PtCl2(NH3)(thiazole)]. It has been shown that, in contrast to the adducts of monodentate chlorodiethylenetriamineplatinum(II) chloride or [PtCl(NH3)(3)]Cl, the monofunctional adduct of trans- [PtCl2(NH3)(thiazole)] inhibits DNA synthesis and creates a local conformational distortion similar to that produced in DNA by the major 1,2-GG intrastrand CL of cisplatin, which is considered the lesion most responsible for its anticancer activity. In addition, the monofunctional adducts of trans-[PtCl2(NH3)(thiazole)] are recognized by HMGB1 domain proteins and removed by the nucleotide excision repair system similarly as the 1,2-GG intrastrand CL of cisplatin. The results of the present work further support the view that the simple chemical modification of the structure of an inactive platinum compound alters its DNA binding mode into that of an active drug and that processing of the monofunctional DNA adducts of the traps-platinum analogues in tumor cells may be similar to that of the major bifunctional adducts of "classical" cisplatin.