Simultaneous Electrochemical Monitoring of Metabolites Related to the Xanthine Oxidase Pathway Using a Grinded Carbon Electrode
Using a mechanically grinded pyrolytic graphite electrode in edge orientation, a sensitive electrochemical method was developed for simultaneous determination of uric acid (UA), xanthine (XAN), hypoxanthine (HYP) (products of purine catabolism in human), allopurinol (ALO), and oxypurinol (OXY) (a drug used in treatment of purine catabolism disorders and its metabolite, respectively). It is demonstrated that differential pulse voltammetry in connection with this electrode can serve as a simple and efficient tool for monitoring transformation of purine catabolites (HYP ->XAN ->UA) catalyzed by xanthine oxidase (XO) as well as inhibition of this pathway by ALO being enzymatically converted to OXY. Our protocol is based on direct electrochemical measurement of oxidation peaks for each of the substances during in vitro reactions in a single detection step by the same electrode system. In addition, we show that the proposed electrochemical technique can be applied to parallel detection of metabolites involved in the XO pathway excreted in urine without any pretreatment of the clinical samples.