GFP-like Fluorophores as DNA Labels for Studying DNA-Protein Interactions
GFP-like 3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxybenzylideneimidazolinone (FBI) and 3,5-bis(methoxy)-4-hydroxy-benzylideneimidazolinone (MBI) labels were attached to dCTP through a propargyl linker, and the resulting labeled nucleotides (dC(MBI)TP and dC(FBI)TP) were used for a facile enzymatic synthesis of oligonucleotide or DNA probes by polymerase-catalyzed primer extension. The MBI/FBI-labeled DNA probes exerted low fluorescence that was increased 2-3.2 times upon binding of a protein. The concept was demonstrated on sequence-specific binding of p53 to dsDNA and on nonspecific binding of single strand binding protein to an oligonucleotide. The FBI label was also used for a time-resolved experiment monitoring a single-nucleotide incorporation followed by primer extension by Vent(exo-) polymerase.