Interferon-gamma, but not interferon-alpha, induces SOCS 3 expression in human melanoma cell lines
The signal transducers and transcription activators (STATs) and their endogenous inhibitors of the suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) family are major proteins harmonizing the transmission of external signals from the surface membrane to target genes in the nucleus. To correlate the induction of SOCS 3 by interferons (IFNs) on messenger RNA and protein levels with STAT 1 phosphorylation in human malignant melanoma cell lines we used a unique collection of 18 established malignant melanoma cell lines and six human non-malignant normal cells (two melanocytes, two skin keratinocytes and two fibroblasts). IFN-gamma induced SOCS 3 in 83% of melanoma cell lines, whereas IFN-alpha stimulated SOCS 3 expression in only 11% of cases. Similarly, melanocytes showed strong induction of SOCS 3 by IFN-gamma and, to a lesser extent, by IFN-alpha. In most cases, SOCS 3 expression was paralleled by STAT I phosphorylation at tyrosine residues (Y701). In several lines, however, SOCS 3 was not induced despite STAT 1 phosphorylation and, in a few lines, SOCS 3 induction occurred without detectable STAT 1 phosphorylation, indicating that STAT 1 might not be an exclusive inducer of SOCS 3. Similarly, non-malignant cells displayed STAT 1 activation and high levels of SOCS 3 expression after IFN-gamma (but not IFN-alpha) treatment. In conclusion, in contrast to IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma appeared to induce SOCS 3 apparently at the transcription level and exhibited higher cytotoxic effects regardless of the cell origin.