Perioperative and postoperative course of cytokines and the metabolic activity of neutrophils in human cardiac operations and heart transplantation
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare systemic inflammatory responses after heart transplantation and nontransplant cardiac operations, both involving cardiopulmonary bypass with a focus on the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Methods: Lipid peroxidation, blood phagocyte radical production, and interleukin 6, 8, and 10 plasma concentrations during surgical intervention and on the first and seventh postoperative days were evaluated in patients undergoing heart transplantation (n = 24) and in patients not undergoing transplantation (n = 30). Results: Levels of interleukin 6, 8, and 10 increased in both groups of patients during early reperfusion. They normalized within the first postoperative day in the transplant group, whereas the nontransplant group's interleukin 6 and 8 levels remained increased on the seventh day after the operation. Interleukin 10 plasma levels were higher in the heart transplant group during reperfusion. Lipid peroxidation was increased after the operation in both groups of patients. Phagocyte activity was enhanced at reperfusion and at all other sampling times only in the nontransplant group. On the other hand, phagocyte activity oscillated around the preoperative level during heart transplantation, or it was even decreased. Conclusion: Both cardiac operations involving heart transplantation and those without transplantation are associated with increased oxidative stress and an enhanced production of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Differences in interleukin 10 production and phagocyte activity could be caused mainly by the immunosuppressive therapy in heart transplant operations.