Inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism potentiate tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells
We investigated whether and how could various modulators of arachidonic acid metabolism affect apoptosis induced by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in human myeloid leukaemia HL-60 cells. These included arachinonyltrifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF(3); cytosolic phospholipase A(2) inhibitor), indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor), MK-886 (3-[1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3-t-butyl-thio-5-isopro-pylindol-2-yl]-2,2-dimethyl propanoic acid; 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein inhibitor), nordihydroguaiaretic acid (general lipoxygenase inhibitor), and arachidonic acid itself. Incubation of HL-60 cells with nordihydroguaiaretic acid resulted in apoptosis and it was characterised by mitochondria membrane depolarisation, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol and activation of caspase-3. Indomethacin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid synergistically potentiated TNF-alpha -induced apoptosis, while arachidonic acid, AACOCF3 and MK-886 did not modulate its effects. Furthermore, indomethacin potentiated apoptosis in cells treated with a differentiating agent, all-trans retinoic acid, which induces resistance to TNF-alpha. However, the observed effects were probably not associated either with the cyclooxygenase- or lipoxygenase-dependent activities of indomethacin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid, respectively. Since indomethacin may reportedly activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), the effects of specific ligands of PPARs on apoptosis were studied as well. It was found that selective PPARs ligands had no effects on TNF-alpha -induced apoptosis. The findings suggest that arachidonic acid metabolism does not play a key role in regulation of apoptosis induced by TNF-alpha in the present model. Nevertheless, our data raise the possibility that indomethacin could potentially be used to improve the treatment of human myeloid leukaemia. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.