Arabidopsis proteome responses to the smoke-derived growth regulator karrikin
Kamkins are butenolide plant growth regulators in smoke from burning plant material that have proven ability to promote germination and seedling photomorphogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are unclear. Here we provide the first proteome-wide analysis of early responses to karrikin in plants (Arabidopsis seedlings). Image analysis of two-dimensionally separated proteins, Rubisco-depleted proteomes and phosphoproteomes, together with LC-MS profiling, detected >1900 proteins, 113 of which responded to karrikin treatment. All the differentially abundant proteins (except HSP70-3) are novel karrikin-responders, and most are involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, redox homeostasis, transcription control, proteosynthesis, protein transport and processing, or protein degradation. Our data provide functionally complementary information to previous identifications of karrikin-responsive genes and evidence for a novel karrikin signalling pathway originating in chloroplasts. We present an updated model of karrikin signalling that integrates proteomic data and is supported by growth response observations. Biological significance Karrikin has shown promising potential in agricultural applications, yet this process is poorly understood at the molecular level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first survey of early global proteomic responses to karrikin in plants (Arabidopsis seedlings). The combination of label-free LC-MS profiling and 2-DE analyses provided highly sensitive snapshots of protein abundance and quantitative information on proteoform-level changes. These results present evidence of proteasome-independent karrikin signalling pathways and provide novel targets for detailed mechanistic studies using, e.g., mutants and transgenic plants. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.