Frequent silencing of rDNA loci on the univalent-forming genomes contrasts with their stable expression on the bivalent-forming genomes in polyploid dogroses (Rosa sect. Caninae)

Publikace: HEREDITY 104, 113-120 Autoři: Khaitova, L., Werlemark, G., Nybom, H., Kovarik, A. Rok: 2010

Abstrakt

The polyploid species in Rosa section Caninae (2n=21, 28 or 35) are characterized by an unusual reproductive system known as odd (or asymmetric) meiosis. Only two chromosome sets form bivalents in meiosis, whereas the remaining chromosomes are transmitted as univalents through the female germline. Evolution of ribosomal rRNA genes (rDNA) does not seem to be significantly affected by interlocus homogenization in dogroses. As a consequence, most species contain several rDNA families falling into two main clades (beta and gamma) thought to be differentially distributed between bivalent and univalent chromosomes, respectively. Here, we have investigated expression of rRNA gene families in five pentaploid species (R. canina, R. rubiginosa, R. dumalis, R. sherardii and R. caesia, 2n=35) and in one tetraploid (R. mollis, 2n=28). Using extensive sequencing of ITS clones and cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS) analysis, we found that the beta-family was constitutively expressed in all species. However, there was large variation in the expression patterns of families constituting the gamma-clade. In addition, a single family can be active in one species, whereas silenced in another. The data show that the families on bivalent-forming chromosomes dominate rDNA expression in all dogrose species. We hypothesize that genes on bivalent genomes are stably expressed, whereas those on univalent genomes undergo variable levels of epigenetic silencing. Nonetheless, mosaic expression of univalent genomes could contribute to phenotypic variation between the species. Heredity (2010) 104, 113-120; doi:10.1038/hdy.2009.94; published online 29 July 2009