Sequence specificity, conformation, and recognition by HMG1 protein of major DNA interstrand cross-links of antitumor dinuclear platinum complexes
Interactions of high mobility group (HMG) domain proteins with DNA modified by cisplatin plays a role in mechanisms underlying its antitumor activity. A structural motif recognized by HMG domain proteins on cisplatin-modified DNA is a stable, directional bend of the helix axis. In the present work, bending induced in DNA by major adducts of a novel class of antitumor compounds, represented by the formula [(trans-PtCl(NH3)(2))H2N(CH2)(2-6)NH2]Cl-2, was investigated. The oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplexes containing various site-specific interstrand cross-links of these bifunctional dinuclear platinum drugs were purified and characterized by Maxam-Gilbert footprinting, chemical probing, and phasing assay. It was demonstrated that the crosslinks of the dinuclear compounds bent the helix much less than those of cisplatin, Gel retardation assay revealed very weak recognition of DNA adducts of dinuclear complexes by HMG1 protein. Hence, the mediation of antitumor properties of dinuclear platinum complexes by HMG domain proteins is unlikely so that polynuclear platinum compounds may represent a novel class of platinum anticancer drugs acting by a different mechanism than cisplatin and its analogues. A further understanding of how polynuclear platinum compounds modify DNA and how these modifications are processed in cells should provide a rational basis for the design of new platinum drugs rather than searching for cisplatin analogues.