Bioavailability and Antioxidant Activity of Black Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) Polyphenols: in vitro and in vivo Evidences and Possible Mechanisms of Action: A Review
Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) is a distinctive berry with a high content of polyphenol compounds and possesses one of the highest in vitro antioxidant activities among fruits. The bioavailability of aronia polyphenols seems to be low, but there is ample evidence for chokeberry health benefits including antidiabetic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic effects. This review presents the available information for the bioavailability and antioxidant activity of chokeberry polyphenols and explains the possible mechanisms of action in vivo in the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases. The review shows the available data for chokeberry antioxidant activity in vitro, in isolated cells and cell lines, and in vivo, in both human subjects and animals. It is evident that in vivo antioxidant action of chokeberry extends far beyond radical scavenging and includes suppression of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species formation, inhibition of prooxidant enzymes, restoration of antioxidant enzymes, and probably cellular signaling to regulate the level of antioxidant compounds and enzymes. The original contribution of this work is that it compiles the available information up to date and outlines the gaps and future directions in the assessment of chokeberry antioxidant action in vivo.