Genotoxicity of 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole and Its Tissue-Specific Derivatives in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells Is Related to CYP1A1/1A2 Expression
The goal of this study was to investigate the genotoxicity of 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, and its methyl derivatives, 5,9-dimethylDBC (DiMeDBC), a strict hepatocarcinogen, and N-methylDBC (N-MeDBC), a specific sarcomagen in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, and to infer potential mechanisms underlying the biological activity of particular carcinogen. All dibenzocarbazoles, regardless the tissue specificity, induced significant DNA strand break levels and micronuclei in HepG2 cells; though a mitotic spindle dysfunction rather than a chromosome breakage was implicated in N-MeDBC-mediated micronucleus formation. While DBC and N-MeDBC produced stable DNA adducts followed with p53 protein phosphorylation at Ser-15, DiMeDBC failed. A significant increase in DNA strand breaks following incubation of exposed cells with a repair-specific endonuclease (Fpg protein) suggested that either oxidative DNA damage or unstable DNA-adducts might underlie DiMeDBC genotoxicity in human hepatoma cells. DiMeDBC and N-MeDBC increased substantially also the amount of CYP1A1/2 expression in HepG2 cells. Pretreatment of cells with substances affecting AhR-mediated CYP1A family of enzymes expression; however, diminished DiMeDBC and N-MeDBC genotoxicity. Our data clearly demonstrated differences in the mechanisms involved in the biological activity of DiMeDBC and N-MeDBC in human hepatoma cells; the genotoxicity of these DBC derivatives is closely related to CYP1A1/2 expression. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 52:636-645, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.