Transforming growth factor-beta 1 inhibits all-trans retinoic acid-induced apoptosis
The interaction between retinoids and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) leading to regulation of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis is not still fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that a combination treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and TGF-beta 1 led to the enhancement of ATRA-induced suppression of cell proliferation, which is accompanied by inhibition of ATRA-induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells. This effect was preceded by the arrest of cells in G0/G1 cell cycle phase linked with pRb protein dephosphorylation, continuous accumulation of p21 and transiently increased level of p27, inhibitors of cycl in-dependent kinases. Inhibition of ATRA-induced apoptosis by TGF-beta 1 was associated with an increased level of Mcl-1 protein, an anti-apoptotic member of Bcl-2 family, but not with inhibition of mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Levels of other Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-X-L, Bad, Bak, Bax) were unaffected by simultaneous ATRA and TGF-beta 1 treatment, when compared to ATRA alone. Upregulation of c-FLIPL protein, an inhibitor of apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), correspond with inhibition of ATRA-induced (autocrine TRAIL-mediated) caspase-8 activation and apoptosis. These results suggest that apoptosis inhibition associated with proliferation block could depend on modulation of the TRAIL apoptotic pathway and regulation of the Mcl-1 protein level. In summary, we demonstrate that the balance of processes leading to regulation of proliferation and differentiation of myeloid cells can modulate cell sensitivity to apoptosis-inducing stimuli. (C) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.