Asymmetric dimethylarginine regulates the lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in macrophages by suppressing the activation of NF-kappaB and iNOS expression
Two major effector systems are frequently implicated in the immune and endothelial cell alternations associated with inflammation. They include the enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and diminished bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). Importantly, these processes can be regulated by endogenously produced methylarginines, inhibitors for NO derived from macrophages and endothelial cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to show the potential pharmacological intervention of methylarginines (N-G-methyl-L-arginine, L-NMMA; N-G, N-G'-dimethyl-L-arginine-symmetric dimethylarginine, SDMA; and N-G, N-G-dimethyl-L-arginine-asymmetric dimethylarginine, ADMA) in activation of murine peritoneal (RAW 264.7) and alveolar (MHS) macrophages with lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria (LPS). The data presented in this study clearly declare that L-NMMA (1-50 mu M) and ADMA (10-50 mu M) significantly inhibited the LPS-induced NO production from macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. It was demonstrated, for the first time, that the ADMA- and L-NMMA-induced down regulation of NO production was accompanied by reduced expression of mRNA and protein for inducible NO synthase as well as decreased activation of nuclear factor-kappa B. Importantly, we found a negative correlation between the ADMA-dependent reduction of NO production and ADMA-increased superoxide formation, which indicates that ADMA can negatively affect the balance in LPS-induced macrophage-derived production of reactive mediators. The only effect of SDMA was observed for LPS-triggered superoxide production, which was significantly decreased in its highest concentration (50 mu M). In summary, L-NMMA and ADMA can mediate their effects on macrophage activation via regulation of intracellular signaling pathways, which can affect critical functions in activated macrophages. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.