The Expression of NADPH Oxidases and Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Epithelial Cell Line A549
Controlled production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases in non-phagocytic cells has recently been suggested to participate in the regulation of cellular functions. Due to the role of ROS in control of cellular functions, precise and accurate detection of ROS is of essential importance. However, various methodological approaches currently used for ROS determination vary in sensitivity, specificity, as well as in requirements for specialized equipment. In this study, human lung epithelial cell line A549 was screened for expression of NADPH oxidases NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, NOX5, DUOX1 and DUOX2 by quantitative RT-PCR. Fluorometric, colorimetric, and chemiluminometric methods were applied to determine ROS production. A549 cells were found to significantly express NOX1, NOX2, DUOX1 and DUOX2. ROS production by A549 cells was detected with fluorometric probes 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate, dihydroethidium, and amplex red or colorimetric probe nitrobluetetrazolium. The production of ROS detected by these probes was partially reduced by NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium. The inhibitory effect of diphenyleneiodonium was the most significant regarding amplex red detection of phorbol myristate acetate-activated ROS production. In contrast to other probes, neither cytochrome c colorimetric determination nor luminol- and L-012-amplified chemiluminescence, regardless of the addition of horseradish peroxidase, exerted sufficient sensitivity to detect ROS production by A549. The results revealed differences among methods used for ROS formation measurement by human lung epithelial cell line A549 and highlighted the sensitivity of fluorometric determination for this purpose.