Blood phagocyte activation during open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass
Open heart surgery with a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with a systemic inflammatory response which significantly contributes to adverse postoperative complications. The purpose of this study was to characterize the activation of blood phagocytes during open heart surgery with CPB. Blood samples were collected during and up to 24 h after surgery. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in whole blood, the expression of surface molecules by blood phagocytes and complement activity in the plasma were determined. A cDNA microarray analysis of leukocyte RNA profile of genes was performed related to the inflammatory response. Activation of the complement was already observed at the beginning of CPB. This was followed by an increase in the neutrophil number and in both spontaneous and opsonized zymosan-activated ROS production after the onset of reperfusion. The activation of blood phagocytes was affirmed by changes in surface receptors involved in the adhesion and migration of leukocytes (CD11b, CD62L and CD31). Gene arrays also confirmed the activation of leukocytes 4 h after reperfusion. In conclusion, open heart surgery with a cardiopulmonary bypass was found to be associated with a rapid and pronounced activation of blood phagocytes and complement activation which was partly independent at the onset of CPB.