Nuclear topography of the c-myc gene in human leukemic cells
The c-myc gene Flays an essential role in the regulation of the cell cycle and differentiation. Therefore, changes of the c-myc positioning during differentiation are of great interest. As a model system of cell differentiation, the HL-60 and U-937 human leukemic cell lines were used in our experiments. These cells can be induced to differentiation into granulocytes that represent one of the pathways of blood cell maturation. In this study, changes of the topographic characteristics of the c-myc gene (8q24), centromeric region of chromosome 8 and chromosome 8 domain during differentiation of HL-60 and U-937 cells were detected using fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). FISH techniques and fluorescence microscopy combined with image acquisition and analysis (high-resolution cytometry) were used in order to detect the topographic features of nuclear chromatin. Increased centre of nucleus-to-gene and gene-to-gene distances of c-myc genes, centromeric region of chromosome 8 and chromosome 8 domains were found early after the induction of granulocytic differentiation by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or retinoic acid (RA); the size of the chromosome 8 domains was rapidly reduced. In differentiated cells, c-myc is located at greater distances from the centromeric regions of chromosome 8. These results support the idea that relocation of the c-myc gene to the nuclear periphery and the condensation of the chromosome 8 domain might be associated with the c-myc gene expression due to common kinetics during granulocytic differentiation. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.