Effects of stable adenosine receptor agonists on bone marrow hematopoietic cells as inferred from the cytotoxic action of 5-fluorouracil
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of stable adenosine receptor agonists on bone marrow hematopoiesis by utilizing the model of hematopoietic damage induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a cycle-specific cytotoxic agent. Effects of a non-selective agonist NECA activating all the known adenosine receptors (A(1), A(2A), A(2B), A(3)) and of the selective agonists for A(1) (CPA), A(2A) (CGS 21680), and A(3) (IB-MECA) adenosine receptors were investigated. Experiments were performed with B10CBAF1 mice under in vivo conditions. Adenosine receptor agonists were given in single injections before 5-FU administration and the effects were determined 4 days later. The numbers of femoral marrow nucleated cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells (CFC-GM and BFU-E) were taken as indices of the effects. The non-selective agonist NECA given at a dose of 200 nmol/kg induced biphasic time-dependent effects, i.e. protection and sensitization, when given 10 h and 22 h before 5-FU administration, respectively. The use of isomolar doses of selective receptor agonists indicated that the protective effects of NECA were induced by activation of A(2A) and A(2B) receptors, while the sensitizing action of NECA was mediated via A(3) receptors. In addition, it was observed that A(1) receptors induced protection when activated by administration of CPA 22 h before 5-FU. These findings are discussed with respect to the action of adenosine receptor agonists on the cell cycle state and on the cell cycle-independent cellular protective mechanisms.