AtTRB1, a telomeric DNA-binding protein from Arabidopsis, is concentrated in the nucleolus and shows highly dynamic association with chromatin
AtTRB1, 2 and 3 are members of the SMH (single Myb histone) protein family, which comprises double-stranded DNA-binding proteins that are specific to higher plants. They are structurally conserved, containing a Myb domain at the N-terminus, a central H1/H5-like domain and a C-terminally located coiled-coil domain. AtTRB1, 2 and 3 interact through their Myb domain specifically with telomeric double-stranded DNA in vitro, while the central H1/H5-like domain interacts non-specifically with DNA sequences and mediates protein-protein interactions. Here we show that AtTRB1, 2 and 3 preferentially localize to the nucleus and nucleolus during interphase. Both the central H1/H5-like domain and the Myb domain from AtTRB1 can direct a GFP fusion protein to the nucleus and nucleolus. AtTRB1-GFP localization is cell cycle-regulated, as the level of nuclear-associated GFP diminishes during mitotic entry and GFP progressively re-associates with chromatin during anaphase/telophase. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and fluorescence loss in photobleaching, we determined the dynamics of AtTRB1 interactions in vivo. The results reveal that AtTRB1 interaction with chromatin is regulated at two levels at least, one of which is coupled with cell-cycle progression, with the other involving rapid exchange.