Molecular Adjuvants Based on Nonpyrogenic Lipophilic Derivatives of norAbuMDP/GMDP Formulated in Nanoliposomes: Stimulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity
Purpose The aim of this work was to demonstrate an immunostimulatory and adjuvant effect of new apyrogenic lipophilic derivatives of norAbuMDP and norAbuGMDP formulated in nanoliposomes. Methods Nanoliposomes and metallochelating nanoliposomes were prepared by lipid film hydration and extrusion methods. The structure of the liposomal formulation was studied by electron microscopy, AF microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Sublethal and lethal gamma-irradiation mice models were used to demonstrate stimulation of innate immune system. Recombinant Hsp90 antigen (Candida albicans) bound onto metallochelating nanoliposomes was used for immunisation of mice to demonstrate adjuvant activities of tested compounds. Results Safety and stimulation of innate and adaptive immunity were demonstrated on rabbits and mice. The liposomal formulation of norAbuMDP/GMDP was apyrogenic in rabbit test and lacking any side effect in vivo. Recovery of bone marrow after sublethal gamma-irradiation as well as increased survival of mice after lethal irradiation was demonstrated. Enhancement of specific immune response was demonstrated for some derivatives incorporated in metallochelating nanoliposomes with recombinant Hsp90 protein antigen. Conclusions Liposomal formulations of new lipophilic derivatives of norAbuMDP/GMDP proved themselves as promising adjuvants for recombinant vaccines as well as immunomodulators for stimulation of innate immunity and bone-marrow recovery after chemo/radio therapy of cancer.