Label-free electrochemical detection of singlet oxygen protein damage
Oxidative damage of proteins results in changes of their structures and functions. In this work, the singlet oxygen (O-1(2))-mediated oxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and urease by blue-light photosensitization of the tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) cation [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) was studied by square wave voltammetry at glassy carbon electrode and by constant current chronopotentiometry at mercury electrode. Small changes in voltammetric oxidation Tyr and Trp peaks did not indicate significant changes in the BSA structure after photo-oxidation at carbon electrode. On the other hand chronopotentiometric peak H of BSA at HMDE increased during blue-light photosensitization, indicating that photo-oxidized BSA was more susceptible to the electric field-induced denaturation than non-oxidized native BSA. Similar results were obtained for urease, where enzymatic activity was also evaluated. The present results show the capability of label- and reagent-free electrochemical methods to detect oxidative changes in proteins. We believe that these methods will become important tools for detection of various protein damages. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.