DNA-damage response in chromatin of ribosomal genes and the surrounding genome
DNA repair events have functional significance especially for genome stability. Although the DNA damage response within the whole genome has been extensively studied, the region-specific characteristics of nuclear sub-compartments such as the nucleolus or fragile sites have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that the heterochromatin protein HP1 and PML protein recognize spontaneously occurring 53BP1- or gamma-H2AX-positive DNA lesions throughout the genome. Moreover, 53BP1 nuclear bodies, which co-localize with PML bodies, also occur within the nucleoli compartments. Irradiation of the human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS with gamma-rays increases the degree of co-localization between 53BP1 and PML bodies throughout the genome; however, the 53BP1 protein is less abundant in chromatin of ribosomal genes and fragile sites (FRA3B and FRA16D) in gamma-irradiated cells. Most epigenomic marks on ribosomal genes and fragile sites are relatively stable in both non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated cells. However, H3K4me2, H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and H3K79me1 were significantly changed in promoter and coding regions of ribosomal genes after exposure of cells to gamma-rays. In fragile sites, gamma-irradiation induces a decrease in H3K4me3, changes the levels of HP1 beta, and modifies the levels of H3K9 acetylation, while the level of H3K9me3 was relatively stable. In these studies, we confirm a specific DNA-damage response that differs between the ribosomal genes and fragile sites, which indicates the region-specificity of DNA repair. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.