Nitro-Fatty Acids Reduce Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice

Published: ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY 30, 938-945 Authors: Rudolph, TK., Rudolph, V., Edreira, MM., Cole, MP., Bonacci, G., Schopfer, FJ., Woodcock, SR., Franek, A., Pekarova, M., Khoo, NKH., Hasty, AH., Baldus, S., Freeman, BA. Year: 2010

Abstract

Objective-Inflammatory processes and foam cell formation are key determinants in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Electrophilic nitro-fatty acids, byproducts of nitric oxide-and nitrite-dependent redox reactions of unsaturated fatty acids, exhibit antiinflammatory signaling actions in inflammatory and vascular cell model systems. The in vivo action of nitro-fatty acids in chronic inflammatory processes such as atherosclerosis remains to be elucidated. Methods and Results-Herein, we demonstrate that subcutaneously administered 9- and 10-nitro-octadecenoic acid (nitro-oleic acid) potently reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Nitro-fatty acids did not modulate serum lipoprotein profiles. Immunostaining and gene expression analyses revealed that nitro-oleic acid attenuated lesion formation by suppressing tissue oxidant generation, inhibiting adhesion molecule expression, and decreasing vessel wall infiltration of inflammatory cells. In addition, nitro-oleic acid reduced foam cell formation by attenuating oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1, a transcription factor linked to foam cell formation in atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerotic lesions of nitro-oleic acid-treated animals also showed an increased content of collagen and alpha-smooth muscle actin, suggesting conferral of higher plaque stability. Conclusion-These results reveal the antiatherogenic actions of electrophilic nitro-fatty acids in a murine model of atherosclerosis. (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:938-945.)