Stimulatory Action of Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors on Hematopoiesis: A Review
The presented review summarizes experimental data obtained with a mouse model when investigating the relationship between inhibition of prostaglandin production and hematopoiesis. While prostaglandin E-2 acts in a negative feedback control of myelopoiesis, inhibition of cyclooxygenases, responsible for its production, shifts the feedback to positive control. Based on these relationships, agents inhibiting cyclo-oxygenases, known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can activate hematopoiesis and be protective or curative under myelosuppressive states. The effectiveness of therapeutic use of NSAIDs in these situations is expressive especially under the selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), when undesirable side effects of cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition, like gastrointestinal damage, are absent. The effects of the clinically approved selective COX-2 inhibitor, meloxicam, were investigated and demonstrated significant hematopoiesis-stimulating and survival-enhancing actions of this drug in sublethally or lethally gamma-irradiated mice. These effects were connected with the ability of meloxicam to increase serum levels of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. It can be inferred from these findings that selective COX-2 inhibitors might find their use in the treatment of myelosuppressions of various etiologies.